Indoxyl Sulfate (IS) and p-cresyl sulfate (PCS) are two toxins that accumulate in the urine of folks with impaired renal function, and may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease.
Rossi et al. found a significant and sustained increase in both IS and PCS in living kidney donors two years post-donation. The levels of these toxins were associated with other markers of cardiovascular disease. They were also found to be predictors of reduced kidney function from pre-donation levels.